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A STUDY OF PARTICIPATION IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETICS 
IN THE TOPKKA, KANSAS PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 



743 

by 



WILLIAM L. WHITE 
B. S., Kansas Stat* University, 1962 



A MASTER' S REPORT 



submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree 

MASTER OF SCIENCE 

Department of Physical Education 

KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY 
Manhattan, Kansas 

1966 

Approved by: 




'a*. /A/m, 



jor Professor 



LV 
2.UA 

V*53- 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 

I. INTRODUCTION 1 

The Problem 2 

Statement of the problem 2 

Importance of the study 2 

Definition of Terms Used 2 

Methods of Study 3 

Organization of the Study 3 

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 4 

III. THE ATHLETIC PROGRAM FOR BOYS IN THE TOPEKA 

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 8 

Administrative S 

Supervision 8 

Junior High School Principals 8 

Coaches 9 

Interschool Athletics 9 

IV. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50 

Summary SO 

Recommendations 51 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 



lil 

LIST Of TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

I. Football Participation Year 1958-59 12 

II. Football Participation Year 1959-60 13 

III. Football Participation Year 1961-62 14 

IV. Football Participation Year 1962-63 15 

V. Football Participation Year 1963-64 16 

VI. Football Participation Year 1964-65 17 

VII. Basketball Participation Year 1958-59 20 

VIII. Basketball Participation Year 1959-60 21 

E. Basketball Participation Year 1961-62 22 

X. Basketball Participation Year 1962-63 23 

XI. Basketball Participation Year 1963-64 2* 

XII. Basketball Participation Year 1964-65 25 

XIII. Tumbling Participation Year 1961-62 27 

XIV. Tumbling Participation Year 1962-63 28 

XV. Tumbling Participation Year 1963-64 29 

XVI. Tumbling Participation Year 1964-65 30 

XVII. Wrestling Participation Year 1961-62 32 

XVIII. Wrestling Participation Year 1962-63 33 

XK. Wrestling Participation Year 1963-64 34 

XX. Wrestling Participation Year 1964-65 35 

XXI. Track Participation Year 1958-59 37 

XXII. Track Participation Year 1959-60 38 



It 

TABLE PAGE 

XXIII. Track Participation Year 1961-62 39 

XXIV. Track Participation Year 1962-63 40 

XXV. Track Participation Year 1963-64 41 

XXVI. Track Participation Year 1964-65 42 

XXVII. Tennis Participation Year 1958-59 44 

XXVIII. Tennis Participation Year 1959-60 45 

XXK. Tennis Participation Year 1961-62 46 

XXX. Tennis Participation Year 1962-63 47 

XXXI. Tennis Participation Year 1963-64 48 

XXXII. Tennis Participation Year 1964-65 49 



CHATTER I 



INTRODUCTION 



On* of the most controversial questions in interscholestle 
athletics today Is "whether junior high school boys should engage in 
interschool athletics." Those who are opposed to junior high athletics 
use as one of their main points of argumentation the fact that only the 
few gifted athletes at this age level benefit from the program, and the 
majority of the pupils are left on their own to satisfy their need for 
physical activity. 

However, after gleaning many articles on the subject there seems 
to be no conclusive evidence which will substantiate many of the criti- 
cisms directed at competitive athletics for boys at the junior high 
school level. Many authorities are not in accord with all phases of 
such a program but believe it has its merits and are hesistant to con- 
demn competitive sports In their entirety. 

It is the purpose of this study to show that if a junior high 
school athletic program Is properly set up and administered; a far 
greater percentage of boys will participate and receive benefits from 
the program than many people realise. The writer elected to present a 
study of the program In operation in the junior high schools of Topeka, 
Kansas, where emphasis is placed on both intramurala and Interschool 
athletics. 



I. THE PROBLEM 

Statement of the problem , this study proposes to determine the 
percentage of boys who are participating in the lnterschool athletic 
program in the junior high schools of Topoka, Kansas. 

Importance of the study . The Supervisor of Health and Physical 
Education for the Public Schools of Topeka and several of the athletic 
coaches have expressed an Interest in the study. 

It is realized that the needs of boys at the junior high school 
level are of vital Importance in our educational system. This study 
will attempt to present facts showing that a tremendous amount of par- 
ticipation is being derived from our lnterschool athletic program. It 
is hoped that a thorough study of the principles and statistics pre- 
sented herein will more than justify the existence of the junior high 
school lnterschool athletic program In Topeka, Kansas. 

II. DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Junior high school . All schools Included in this study are com- 
posed of grades seven, eight, and nine. 

lnterschool athletics . Games or meets which are played between 
teams representing two or more schools. 

Total participation . The total number of all the boys who 
participated In the sport. 



III. METHODS OF STUDY 

Coaches of the eleven junior high schools of Topeka were asked to 
furnish information revealing the number of boys participating in the 
various sports at the junior hljh schools. 

All other information pertinent to this problem was secured from 
the office of the Supervisor of Health and Physical Education for the 
Topeka Public Schools. 

The source of related literature is confined largely to periodi- 
cals which offer authoritative Information on the subject. 

Enrollments at the end of each school year were used for the 
Report. Variations for the remainder of the school year were not con- 
sidered to be of major importance to the study. 

IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 

Chapter II presents a review of related literature. Chapter III 
presents the over-all program with particular reference to: Administra- 
tion, supervision, coaches, and the lnterschool athletic program with 
statistical data. The fourth and last chapter presents a summary of the 
study and offers recommendations for possible projections into the 
future. 



CHAPTER II 
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

Many educators seem to agree that athletics can be highly valua- 
ble at the junior high school level. They strongly urge that such a 
program be educationally 3ound if it is to be incorporated into the 
education for the youth of today. 

The thinking of many authorities is that school athletics, when 
properly conducted, play a vital role in the education of American 
youth. There are innumerable experiences associated with a sound ath- 
letic program which many believe cannot be experienced by youth in any 
other phase of his educational training. 

One of the major criticisms of educational leaders of today is 
that school athletics are net designed to meet the needs of all the 
students and do not necessarily reflect the real purpose of education. 

Gruhn and Douglas note that the chief characteristic of compe- 
titive sports programs in the junior high school is its intramural 
organization. According to Gruhn and Douglas it wa« found that in many 
large communities there is intra city competition between junior high 
schools, but competition with schools in other communities is not very 
common. The thought is further expressed that for the most part sports 
activities in the junior high schools are usually organized so that all 



William T. Gruhn and Harl R. Douglas, JJje Modern Junior Hlfth 
School (New York: Ronald Press Company, 1947), pp. 372-373. 



5 
interested and physically able youths have an opportunity to partici- 



2 
Gruhn and Douglas also noted that more than fifty per cent of all 

pupils engage in some intramural or interscholastic sport. It was their 

opinion that such extensive participation is due, in part, to the fact 

that the sports program is basically intramural. 

~ne of the batter articles concerning athletics for junior high 

school boys was written by Elmer D. Mitchell. The author specifically 

points out that: 

Physiologically, the growing boy is apt to be harmed; psycho- 
logically the boy eleven to fifteen is not ready to assume the 
stress of championship competition; sociologically, the junior 
high school movement is reglmentating our youth in their early 
teens; economically, the systeu. is wrong; educational ly, the junior 
high school period is one of orientation and introduction to all 
subjects, leaving specialised puraurance to the senior high school 
and college years. 3 

This is the age at which boys are beginning to have their first 

experiences about themselves physically, according to Forsythe and 

4 
Duncan. This age also presents many opportunities to learn new game 

skills. It is the belief of the authors that an exposure to a variety 
of games and skills will give youngsters an opportunity to find them- 
selves and to realize in which sports and activities they are most 



2 Ibld . ■ p. 372. 

3 

Elmer D. Mitchell, "The Case Against Interscholastic Athletics 
in the Junior High School," The Bulletin . School of Education, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, Vol. 23, Mo. I, November, 1951, pp. 23-25. 

4 
Charles E. Forsythe and Ray 0. Duncan, Administration of 
Physical Education (New York: Prentice Hall Inc., 1951), p. 223. 



interested and can do the best. 

One of the most authorlatlve studies on interschool athletics was 
published in 1954 by the Educational Policies Commission . Ihls group 
made its recommendations after a three year study. The study also in- 
cluded the opinions of authorities in the various fields of education, 
medicine, health and physical education. 

One of the principal themes carried throughout the report was 
that all children should share in the benefits of athletic participa- 
tion. Much concern is expressed in the report that in too many instances 
the real values of participation are made available for too few children. 

The report recognises that there are numerous educational experi- 
ences of real value to be derived from sound athletic participation. 
Its contributions to health and happiness, physical skills and emotional 
maturity, social competence and moral values are not to be overshadowed 
so long as proper administration and supervision are provided by school 
authorities. 

tttxon and Cozens state that boys and girls are interested In 
playing games and are not necessarily Interested in competing with 
groups from other schools unless they are artlfically stimulated in 
that direction. This is not in accord with what most authorities 



Educational Policies Commission, School Activities : Problems and 
Policies . National Educational Association, Washington, D. C, 1954, 
116 pp. 

6 
Eugene W. Nixon and Frederick W. Cozens, An Introduction to 
Physical Education (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1947), p. 134. 



7 

believe. Children are more desirous of playing teams from other schools 

than teams composed of their school mates. Many authorities are in 

agreement that unless a wholesome competitive program is provided the 

students will provide games for competition. This action very often 

concludes with large scale "sand lot" competition which for the most 

part is void of competent leadership. 

Dr. yuentin Groves, Supervisor of Health, Physical Education, and 

Safety for the Topeka Public Schools states: 

The purpose of the interschool athletic program in the junior 
high school is to unite the student body through dramatic physical 
activities for the development of desirable moral, social, emo- 
tional, and physical qualities suitable to the age group involved 
on a continuing basis throughout his school career.' 



Dr. Quentin Grove*. , Bulletin to £ii Coaches . Topeka Public 
Schools, 1962-63. 



CHAPTER III 

THE ATHLETIC PROGRAM FOR BOYS IN TOPEKA 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

The organization of the program which includes lnterschool games 
and contests of a competitive nature may lead some readers to believe 
that the basic "musts" of education have been excluded. However, a 
close study of the organization and administration will reveal that an 
attempt is being made to meet the needs of all boys who are interested 
in athletics. 

Administrative . In the final analysis all problems arising out 
of the program are referred to the Superintendent of Schools. 

Any administrative problems involving schools or personnel 
directing programs within a school are channeled by the Supervisor of 
Health, Physical Education, and Safety to the Assistant to the Super- 
intendent. 

Supervision . The primary responsibility for Supervision is like- 
wise delegated to the Supervisor of Health, Physical Education and 
Safety. Any problems arising out of supervision which are related to 
the curriculum are referred to the director of instruction. 

Junior High School Principals . Principals of the respective 
Junior high schools serve in an advisory capacity to the Supervisor of 



John Gardner, »A Study of the Athletic Program for Boys in the 
Junior High Schools of Topeka, Kansas" (Unpublished Master's Thesis, 
Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, 1956), p. 24. 



9 
Health, Physical Education, and Safety. Thay meet with the Supervisor 
and sake recommendations concerning administration and supervision of 
the over-all program. 

Coaches . In order to assure that all three grade levels are 
receiving adequate supervision and coaching, each junior high has at 
least one full time paid coach for each grade level. All coaches are 
regarded as special teachers and receive payment for their services In 
accordance with a schedule which takes into account the duties and 
responsibilities of different coaching assignments. 

Interschool athletics . Every boy enrolled In school ia invited 
to be a member of the squad for the sport in season. In most Instances 
squads are representative of the three respective grade levels. Boys 
who show evidence of advanced physical maturity and emotional stability 
are sometimes moved up to teams which represent an advanced grade. This 
situation rarely prevails in the case of seventh grade boys. There are 
some instances when eighth grade boys are advanced to the ninth grade or 
"varsity" squad. 

It is an administrative recommendation not to follow the practice 
of "cutting boys from the squad." It is felt that one of the fundamental 
aims of the program is to create and keep the interest of as many boys 
as possible in each sport. 

Varsity football practice begins the first full day of school and 
the first games are scheduled on the third Thursday after school begins. 
The varsity plays either six or seven games depending on how the yearly 
round- robin affects them. All of the games are played on Thursday 



10 
afternoons at 3:45 P.M., except for a night game which all the schools 
participate in during the second week of the season. The night game was 
set up so that more of the parents would have the opportunity to see 
their sons perform. 

All the equipment is furnished for the boys except shoes, socks, 
dental guards, and athletic supporters. All boys are required to wear 
either canvas football shoes with rubber cleats, or canvas gym shoes, 
and are not permitted to wear leather shoes with hard rubber or aluminum 
cleats. All the equipment is purchased by the central office and each 
Junior high requisitions needed equipment from the central office. Thus, 
each school regardless of its financial background receives the best 
equipment available. 

Since the varsity team from each school is playing for the city 
championship there are no restrictions on the number of boys who must 
participate in any given contest. The better athletes generally do the 
most playing, but all precautions are taken to see that as many boys as 
possible receive game experience as long as it doesn' t affect the out- 
come of the game. 

The seventh grade squad usually checks out equipment during the 
second week of school. Since the objective of the seventh and eighth 
grade program is that of a teaching and learning situation, practice 
time is devoted primarily to the teaching of fundamentals. 

In order to further this objective In football the seventh and 
eighth grade only play four games. The guues are held on Irlday after- 
noons at 4:15 P.M. Saphasis is placed on instruction and participation 



u 

of large numbers of players. To further encourage participation at 
this age level each coach must divide his squad into at least three 
teas* If at all possible. During the actual game which is divided into 
four quarters, each player will play at least one quarter. During the 
final quarter, the coach is free to substitute whatever combination of 
players he desires. Some of the larger schools who have as many as 
sixty out for seventh grade football have played as many as six quarters 
to a game. 

The coaches of the seventh and eighth grade teams are asked to be 
on the field with their teams — supervising not only the team play, but 
also the work of the officials, so that, the gaae will be called in 
accordance with the ability of the players. It Is expected that all 
coaches will give frequent instructions to members of their teams. 

Tables I through VI will show the amount of participation in 
football during the following school years: 1958-59, 1959-60, 1961-65. 
During the six year period indicated in these tables 44.83% of the total 
number of boys enrolled in the junior high schools of Topeka participated 
in lnterschool football. 



TABLE I 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1958-59 



12 



„ . . Enrollment 

Sciao1 boys 

Boswell 240 

Capper 250 

Crane 189 

Curtla 129 

East Topeka 195 

Highland Park 143 

Holliday 166 

Roosevelt 273 

Totals 1585 



Total 
participation 



88 
140 
90 
66 
71 
75 
95 
127 



752 



Note: Read table as follows: 240 boys entered in school. 88 
boys in all three grades participated in football. Roosevelt had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 273. Capper had the largest turnout 
with 140. For the year 47.40 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the football program. 



TABLE II 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1959-60 



13 




905 



Note: Read table as follows: 290 boys entered In school. 134 
boys in all three grades participated in football. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 328 and also the largest turnout with 
207. For the year 50.58 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the football program. 



TABLE III 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1961-62 



14 



„ . . Enrollment 

School 

boys 

Boswell 300 

Capper 404 

Crane 207 

Curtl 147 

East Topeke 258 

Elsenhower 188 

Highland Park 387 

Holliday 183 

Jardlne 255 

Roosevelt 269 

Totals 2610 



Total 
participation 



90 
182 

91 

86 
113 
105 
125 

97 
156 
114 



1159 



Note: Read table as follows: 300 boys entered in school. 90 
boys in all three grades participated in football. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 404 and also the largest turnout with 
182. For the year 44.40 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the football program. 



TABLE IV 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



15 



„ . , Enrollment 

801,001 boys 

Boswell 224 

Capper 365 

Crane 195 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka 271 

Elsenhower 166 

Highland Park 216 

Holllday 189 

Jardine 279 

Roosevelt 242 



Total 
participation 



95 
163 

89 
97 
109 
111 
109 
93 
153 
122 



Totals 



2259 



1141 



Note: Read table as follows: 224 boys entered in school. 95 
beys in all three grades participated in football. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 365 and also the largest turnout with 
163. For the year 50.51 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the football program. 



TABLE V 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1963-64 



16 



„ . , Enrollment 

Seho ° l boys 

Boswell 248 

Capper 303 

Crane 179 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka 235 

Elsenhower 181 

Highland Park 233 

Holliday 188 

Jardine , 336 

London 121 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2408 



Total 
participation 



139 
129 

78 

85 
101 
102 
103 

75 
163 

70 
118 



992 



Note: Read table as follows: 248 boys entered in school. 139 
boys in all three grades participated in football. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 
163, For the year 41.15 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the football program. 



TABLE VI 
FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



17 



. , , Enrollment 

School 

boys 

Boawell 261 

Capper 315 

Crane 172 

Curtis 137 

East Topeka 270 

Elsenhower 206 

Highland Park 265 

Holliday 192 

Jardine 336 

Landon 132 

Roosevelt 268 

Totals 2^54 



Total 
participation 



78 

121 
68 
64 

102 
94 
99 
77 

168 
77 

124 



992 



Note: Read table as follows: 261 boys entered In school. 78 
boys in all three grades participated in football. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 
168. For the year 34.94 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the football program. 



18 
The basketball program ia set up almost identical to that of 
football, in that, each of the three grade levels have their own team 
and each plays their own schedule of games. 

The varsity plays a ten game schedule usually beginning the first 
week of December and ending the last week of February. The team winning 
the most games at the end of the season is declared the city champion. 

Basically, the seventh and eighth grade program is again a teach- 
ing and training program. Each school plays a five game schedule. The 
contests between schools are held because of the motivation values for 
boys, and because the contest provides a realistic teaching situation. 

For the program to fulfill that purpose, a squad of at least 
fifteen players must be carried. The third team plays the first quarter, 
the second team the second quarter, the first team the third quarter, 
and the coach has freedom choice of use of players during the final 
quarter. 

Only a man for man defense is allowed in these games. Mo zone 
or zone press can be used even in the closing minutes of the game. A 
man for man press can be used in the closing minutes, but not beyond the 
ten second restraining line. 

Each of the three grade levels have their own full time coach who 
devotes full time coaching responsibilities to the particular grade 
level he is assigned. 

Tables VII through XII will show the amount of participation in 
basketball during the following school years; 1958-59, 1959-60, 1961- 
65. During the six year period represented in these tables 41.65% of 



19 
the total number of boys enrolled in the junior high schools of Topeka 
participated in the interschool basketball program. 



TABLE VII 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1958-59 



Enrollment Total 

Scno ° 1 boys participation 



Boswell 240 90 

Capper 250 85 

Crane 189 100 

Curtis 129 59 

East Topeka 195 56 

Highland Park 143 75 

Holliday 166 50 

Roosevelt 273 127 

Totals 1585 642 

Note: Read table as follows: 240 boys enrolled in school. 90 
boys in all three grades participated in basketball. Roosevelt had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 273 and also the largest turnout with 
127. For the year 40.50 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the basketball program. 



TABLE VIII 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 195S-60 



„ , , Enrollment 

School , 

boys 

Boswell 290 

Capper 328 

Crane 211 

Curtis 150 

East Topaka 208 

Highland Park . , 182 

Holllday 165 

Roosevelt 255 

Totals 1799 



Total 
participation 



133 
140 
75 
46 
92 
30 
62 
120 



698 



Note: Read table as follows: 290 boys enrolled In school. 133 
boys In all three grades participated in basketball. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boy* with 328 and also the largest turnout with 
140. For the year 39.01 per cent of all the boys enrolled la the junior 
high schools participated in the basketball prograa. 



22 



TABLE IX 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1961-62 



„ . , Enrollment 

School 

uoys 

Boswell 300 

Capper 4o4 

Crane 207 

Curtis 147 

East Topeka 268 

Elsenhower . 188 

Highland Park 387 

Holliday 185 

Jardine 255 

Roosevelt 269 

Totals '.61.0 



Total 
participation 



96 

151 

93 

76 
107 

96 

97 
103 
118 

94 



1021 



Note: Read table as follows: 3C0 boys enrolled in school. 96 
boys in all three grades participated in basketball. Capper had the 
largest enrollment cf boys with 404 and also the largest turnout with 
151. for the year 39.11 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated In the basketball program. 



TABLE X 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



_ . , Enrol laeat 

Seho ° l boys 

Boswell 224 

Capper 365 

Crane 195 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka ..... 261 

Elsenhower 166 

Highland Park 216 

Holllday 189 

Jardine 279 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2259 



Total 
participation 



80 
120 

82 

75 
103 

90 
113 

97 
138 
125 



1023 



Note: Read table as follows: 224 boys enrolled in school. 80 
boys In all three grades participated in basketball. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 365. Jardine had the largest turnout 
with 138. For the year 45.28 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated In the basketball program. 



TABLE XI 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1963-64 



Enrol lment 
Scimo1 boys 

Boswcll 248 

Capper 303 

Crane 179 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka 235 

Eisenhower 181 

Highland Park 233 

Holllday 188 

Jardine 336 

Landon 121 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2408 



Total 
participation 



89 

134 

82 

50 

88 

85 

92 

84 

180 

73 

120 



1077 



Note: Read table as follows: 243 boys enrolled in school. 89 
boys in all three grades participated in basketball. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 330 and also the largest turnout with 
180. For the year 44.73 par cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the basketball program. 



25 



TABLE XII 
BASKETBALL PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



SnrollBient 

School boy8 

Boswell 261. 

Capper 315 

Crane 172 

Curti 137 

East Topeka 270 

Elsenhower 206 

Highland Park 265 

Holliday 192 

Jardlne 336 

Landon 132 

Roosevelt 268 

Totals 2554 



Total 
participation 



88 

106 

78 

53 

94 

94 

106 

100 

178 

62 

95 



1054 



Note: Read table as follows: 261 boys anr-ollod in school. 88 
boys in all three grades participated in b&sk&tball. Jaxdiirft lied the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 
178. For the year 41.27 per cent o£ all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the basketball program. 



26 

During the aenth of March each school has a tumbling and wrea- 
tling team. As In football and basketball each grade level has their 
own team and each competes in interschool competition. 

The tumbling team participates in long mat tumbling, with five gym- 
nasts from each grade level making up the school varsity team. Every 
school is urged to work with large number of boys in this sport, and to 
have competition for both a first and second team for each grade in the 
practice meets which will be scheduled every week during the month of 
March, culminated by a city-wide championship meet. In the city meet each 
school uses its best five tumblers in each grade level to compete against 
each other to determine who is the best individual tumbler in each grade, 
and also to determine a city team champion for each grade level. 

The type of tumbling required is long mat, where each contestant 
Is required to perform a required routine, which consists of a round- 
off-backroll to extension-snap down-backroll to extension-snap down-kip- 
handspring-headspring-forward roll-dive to forward roll. This routine 
is performed down and back a forty foot (tat by each gymnast, he will 
then perform an optional routine of his own choice which will be judged 
fifty per cant on performance of skills and fifty per cent on the dif- 
ficulty of the individual stunts. 

Tables XIII through XVI will show the amount of participation in 
tumbling during the following school years: 1961-65. During the four 
year period which these tables represent 14.932 of the total number of 
boys enrolled in the junior high schools of Topeka participated in the 
interschool tumbling program. 



TABLE XIII 
TUMBLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1961-62 



Enrollment Total 

Scbao1 boys participation 

Boswell 300 18 

Capper 404 37 

Crane 207 29 

Curtis 147 24 

East Topeka 268 34 

Eisenhower 188 33 

Highland Park 387 44 

Holliday 18S 47 

Jardine 233 79 

Roosevelt 269 34 

Totals 2610 381 

Note: Read table as follows: 300 boys enrolled in school. 18 
boys in all three grades participated in tumbling. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of beys with 404. Jardine had the largest turnout 
with 79. For the year 14.59 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the tumbling program. 



TABLE XIV 
TUMBLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



^^ Enrollment Total 

School boys participation 

Boswell 217 19 

Capper 370 20 

Crane 176 30 

Curti. 162 23 

East Topeka 232 25 

Elsenhower 166 25 

Highland Park 210 40 

itolliday 202 33 

Jardine 279 30 

Roosevelt 241 73 

Total* 2259 318 

Note: Read table as follows: 217 boys enrolled in school. 19 
boys in all three grades participated in tumbling. Capper had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 370. Roosevelt had the largest turnout 
with 73. For the year 13.65 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the tumbling program. 



TABLE XV 
TUMBLING PARTICIPATION YSAH. 1963-54 



- . , Enrollment 

Sebooi boy. 

Boswell 248 

Capper 303 

Crane 179 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka 235 

Elsenhower 181 

Highland Park 233 

Holliday 188 

Jardlne 336 

Landon 121 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2408 



Total 
participation 



31 
28 
22 
27 
33 
37 
25 
35 
74 
22 
88 



422 



Note: Read table as follows: 248 boys enrolled in school. 31 
beys participated in tumbling from all three grades. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336. Roosevelt had the largest turnout 
with 88. For the year 17.52 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the tumbling program. 



TABLE XVI 
TUMBLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



„ , , Enrollment Total 

School . .. . . . 

boys participation 

Boswall 261 38 

Capper 315 33 

Crane 172 29 

Curtis 137 31 

East Topeka 270 37 

Elsenhower . 206 30 

Highland Park 265 18 

Holliday 192 24 

Jardine 336 52 

Landon 132 21 

Roosevelt 268 43 

Totals 2354 356 

Note: Read table as follows: 261 boys enrolled in school. 38 

boys in all three grades participated in tumbling. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 
52. For the year 13.93 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the tumbling program. 



31 

Wrestling Is another sport along with tumbling where it is felt 
that a large number of boys who because of their lack of stature are 
able to compete on equal terms with their fellow classmates. 

Once again each individual grade has its own team with thirteen 
Individual weight classes at each grade level. These weight classes 
start at 75, 85, and 95 pounds for each of the three grade*. 

There are four practice matches against other schools with each 
grade participating in each match. Teams then draw for placement at 
two city regional tournaments. The first two place winners in each 
weight division then meet a week later in the city championship meet 
where individual and team champions are decided in each grade. 

All boys participating in wrestling are weighed the week before 
the regional meet and are required to wrestle in that weight group. 

The matches consist of three one minute periods. No riding time 
is kept. In case of a tie, at the end of the regulation tine, there 
will be two thirty second overtime periods. Three judges shall declare 
a winner in case of a tie at the end of the overtime periods. 

Tables XVII through XX will show the amount of participation in 
wrestling during the following school years: 1961-65. During the four 
year period which these tables represent 25. 494 of the total number of 
boys enrolled in the Junior high schools of Topeka participated in the 
interschool wrestling program. 

During the month of March 40.42% of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in either tumbling or wrestling over 
the four year period. 



32 



TABLE XVII 
WRESTLING PARTICIPATION YKA* 1961-62 



, Enrollment Total 

ae "° o1 boys participation 

Boswell 300 16 

Capper 404 71 

Crane 207 66 

Curti 147 53 

East Topeka 268 30 

Eisenhower 18S 45 

Highland Park 287 80 

Holli-ay 185 58 

Jardine 255 130 

Roosevelt 269 47 

Totals 2610 595 



■■■HK«MMB««BnB« 



Note: Read table as follows: 300 boys enrolled in school. 16 
boys in all three grades participated in wrestling. Capper had the 
largest enrollment o£ boys alth, 404. Jardine had the largest turnout 
with 130. tax the year 22.83 per cant o£ all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the wrestling program. 



33 



TABLE XVIII 
WRESTLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



Enrol iiaeiit Total 

School hoys participation 



Boswell 217 20 

Capper 370 115 

Crane 178 35 

Curtis 162 67 

East Topeka 232 51 

Elsenhower 166 

Highland Park 210 55 

Holliday 202 *3 

Jardine 279 130 

Roosevelt 241 56 

Totals 2257 612 



Note: Read table as follous: 217 boys enrolled in school. 20 
boys in all three grades participated in wrestling. Capper had the 
largest enrollaent of boys with 370. Jardine had the largest turnout 
with U0. For the year 27.11 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the wrestling program. 



TABLE XIX 
WRESTLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1963-64 



Enrollment Total 

School boys participation 

Eoewell 2*8 38 

Capper 303 11« 

Crane 179 54 

Curtis 142 60 

East Topeka 235 52 

Eisenhower 181 56 

Highland Park 233 54 

liolliday 180 51 

Jardine 336 170 

Landon 121 42 

Roosevelt 242 65 

Total* 2408 718 

Note: Read table as follows: 248 boys enrolled in school. 38 
boys in ail three grades participated in wrestling. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys witl. 336 and also the largest turnout with 
170. ?or the year 29.86 par cent of all the boys enrolled in the Junior 
high schools participated in toe wrestling program. 



35 

TABLE XX 
WRESTLING PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



e-u-,,! Enrollment Total 

boys participation 

Boswell 261 29 

Capper 315 79 

Crane 172 48 

Curtis 137 64 

East Topeka 270 50 

Eisenhower 206 50 

Highland Park 265 58 

Holliday 192 35 

Jardine 336 143 

Landon 132 28 

Roosevelt 268 75 

Totals 2554 578 

Note: Read table as follows: 261 boys enrolled In school. 29 
boys in the three grades participated in wrestling. Jardine had the 
largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 
143. For the year 22.16 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the wrestling program. 



36 

The spring sports consist of track and tennis, with each grade 
level participating against the same age group from the other schools. 
In track each school can enter up to as many as three participants in 
each event except the ninth grade 220 yard dash, and the 70 yard hurdles 
in all three grades. 

The field events for each of the three grade levels consist of 
the hlghjump, broadjurap, polevault, and the eight pound shotput. The 
running events are the 70 yard dash, 100 yard dash, 220 yard dash, 880 
yard run, 70 yard hurdles, 440 yard relay, and the medley (660) relay. 

Each school participates in five meets during the season, and the 
city wide track meet which is held at Moore Bowl, Washburn University 
the last week of the season. School is dismissed in the afternoon of 
the city meet so that as many students as possible from each junior high 
school may attend. 

Tables XXI through XXVI will show the amount of participation in 
track during the following school years: 1958-59, 1959-60, and 1961-65. 
During the six year period which these tables represent 39.21% of the 
total number of boys enrolled in the junior high schools of Topeka 
participated in the lnterschool track program. 



37 



TABLE XXI 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1958-59 



. . Enrollment Total 

Sch001 boys participation 



Boswoll 240 93 

Capper 250 125 

Crane 189 95 

Curtis 129 34 

East Topeka 195 7* 

Highland Park 143 90 

Holliday 166 108 

Roosevelt 273 122 

Totals 1585 763 



Note: Read table as follows: 240 boys enrolled in school. 93 
boys in the three grades participated in the track program. Roosevelt 
had the largest enrollment of boys with 273. Capper had the largest 
turnout with 125. For the year 48.13 per cent of all the boys enrolled 
in the junior high schools participated in the track program. 



TABLE XXII 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1959-60 



„ , , Enrollment Total 

School 



boy* participation 



Boswell 290 115 

Capper 328 163 

Crane 211 80 

Curtis 150 50 

East Topeka . 208 80 

Highland Park 182 80 

Holliday 165 108 

Roosevelt 255 115 

Totals 1789 791 

Note: Read table as follows: 290 boys enrolled in school. 115 
boys participated in the track program from three grades. Capper had 
the largest enrollaent of boys with 328 and also the largest turnout 
with 163. For the year 44.22 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the track program. 



39 



TABLE XXIII 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1961-62 



-^ Enrollment Total 

betlooX boys participation 

Boawell 300 62 

Capper 404 138 

Crane 207 62 

Curtis 147 73 

East Topaka 268 73 

Eisenhower 188 80 

Highland Park 387 90 

Holliday 185 79 

Jardine 255 132 

Roosevelt 269 123 

Totals 2610 912 

Note: Read table as follows: 300 boys enrolled in school. 62 
boys in the three grades participated in the track program. Capper had 
the largest enrollment of boys with 404 and also the largest turnout 
with 138. For the year 34.99 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the track program. 



TABLE XXIV 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



Enrollment Total 

Scttooi boys participation 

Boswell 217 79 

Cappar 370 102 

Crane 178 60 

Curtis 162 72 

East Topeka 232 87 

Eisenhower 166 BO 

Highland Parle 210 57 

Holliday 202 82 

Jardine 279 149 

Roosevelt 241 123 

Totals 22S7 893 

Note: Read table as follows: 217 boys enrolled in school. 79 
boys in the three grades participated in the track program. Capper had 
the largest enrollment of boys with 370. Jardine had the largest turn- 
out with 149. For the year 35.13 par cant of all the boy3 enrolled in 
the junior high schools participated in the track program. 



TABLE XXV 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1963-64 



_ . , Enrollment 

Seho ° l boys 

Boewell 248 

Capper 303 

Crane 179 

Curtis 142 

East Topeka 235 

Elsenhower 181 

Highland Park 233 

Holliday 168 

Jardlne 336 

Landon 121 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2408 



Total 
participation 



55 

86 
84 
64 
91 
75 
75 
69 
140 

105 



893 



Note: Read table a» follows: 248 boys enrolled in school. 55 
boys in the three grades participated in the track program. Jardine had 
the largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also tha largest turnout with 
140. For the year 37.09 per cent of all the boye enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the track program. 



TABLE XXVI 
TRACK PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



42 



„ . , Enrollment 

School boyf 

Bosvell 261 

Capper 315 

Crane 172 

Curtis 137 

East Topska 270 

Eisenhower 206 

Highland Park 265 

Holliday 192 

Jardlno 336 

Landon 132 

Roosevelt 268 

Totals 2554 



Total 
participation 



64 
89 
63 
66 
82 
70 
89 
93 

140 
40 

105 



901 



Note: Read table as follows: 261 boy3 enrolled in school. 64 
boys in the three grades participated in the track progran. Jardine had 
the largest enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout 
with 140. For the year 35.67 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the track program. 



43 

During tennis season each school will be represented by a 
singles player and a doubles team from each grade level. Each school 
will play five matches during the season and then take part in a city 
tournament where individual and team champions from each grade are 
crowned. 

Tables XXVII through XXXII will slaw the amount of participation 
in tennis during the following school years: 1958-59, 1959-60, and 
1961-65. During the six year period which these tables represent 10.382 
of the total number of boys enrolled in the junior high schools of Topeka 
participated in the tennis program. 






TABLE XXVII 
TENttIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1958-39 



Enrollment Total 

School boys participation 



Boswell 24C 16 

Capper 250 37 

Crane 189 34 

Curtis 129 10 

Eaat Topeka 195 18 

Highland Park 143 13 

Holliday 166 65 

Roosevelt 273 9 

Totala 1585 202 

Note: Read table as follows: 240 boys enrolled in school. 16 
boys in the thxae grades participated in tennis. Roosevelt had tha 
largest enrollment of boys with 2/3. Hoillday had the largest turnout 
with 65. For the year 12.80 per cant of all t.ie boys enrolled in the 
junior high schools participated in the tennis program. 



TABLE XXVIII 
TENNIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1959-60 



- . . Enrollment 

301,001 boys 

Bosvell 290 

Capper 328 

Crane 211 

Curtis 150 

East Topeka 208 

Highland Park 182 

Holliday 165 

Roosevelt 255 

Totals 1789 



Total 
participation 



18 
30 

20 
9 
21 
12 
40 
35 



185 



Note: Read table as follows: 290 boys enrolled In school. 18 
boys In the three grades participated in tennis. Capper had the largest 
enrollment of boys with 328. Ifalliday had the largest turnout with 40. 
For the year 10.34 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior high 
schools participated in the tennis program. 









IABLE XX DC 
TENNIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1961-62 



„ . , irallaaat 

301,001 boys 

Boswell 300 

Capper 404 

Crane 207 

Curtis 147 

East Topeka 268 

Elsenhower 188 

Highland Park 387 

Holiiday 185 

Jardine 255 

Roosevelt 269 

Totals 2610 



Total 
participation 



16 
25 
12 
20 
27 
22 
26 
16 
17 
13 



196 



Note: Read table aa follows: 300 boys enrolled In school. 16 
boys In the three grades participated In tennis. Capper had the largest 
enrollment of boys with 404. East Topeka had the largest turnout with 
27. For the year 6.50 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior 
high schools participated in the tennis program. 



TABLE XXX 
TENNIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1962-63 



47 



„ . , Enrollment 

Scltoal boys 

Boswell 217 

Capper 370 

Crane 178 

Curtis 162 

East Topeka 232 

Elsenhower 166 

Highland Park 210 

Holliday 202 

Jardine 279 

Roosevelt 241 

Totals 2257 



Total 
participation 



21 
30 
17 
18 
27 
21 
30 
22 
33 
20 



239 



Note: Read table as follows: 217 boys enrolled In school. 21 
boys in the three grades participated in tennis. Capper had the largest 
enrollment of boys with 370. Jardine had the largest turnout with 33. 
For the year 10.58 per cent of all the boys enrolled In the junior high 
schools participated in the tennis program. 






TABLE XXXI 
TENNIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1963-64 



„ . , Enrollment 

Seho ° 1 boys 

Boswell 248 

Capper 303 

Crane 179 

Curti« 142 

East Topeka 235 

Eisenhower 181 

Highland Park 233 

liolliday 188 

Jardlne 336 

Landon 121 

Roosevelt 242 

Totals 2408 



Total 
participation 



22 
32 
21 
9 
17 
18 
28 
27 
39 
21 
30 



264 



Note: Read table as follows: 248 boys entered In school. 22 
boys in the three grades participated in tennis. Jardlne had the largest 
enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 39. For 
the year 10.96 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior high 
schools participated in the tennis program. 






TABLE XXXII 
TENNIS PARTICIPATION YEAR 1964-65 



- , , Enrollment 

School 

boys 

Boewell 261 

Capper 315 

Crane 172 

Curtis 137 

East Topeka 270 

Elsenhower 206 

Highland Park 265 

Holllday 192 

Jardlne 336 

Landon 132 

Roosevelt 268 

Totals 2554 



Total 
participation 



22 
20 
39 
12 
22 
34 
23 
15 
41 
26 
29 



283 



Note: Read table as follows: 261 boys enrolled In school. 22 
boys In the three grades participated In tennis. Jardlne had the largest 
enrollment of boys with 336 and also the largest turnout with 41. For 
the year 11.08 per cent of all the boys enrolled in the junior high 
schools participated in the tennis program. 



CHAPTER TV 

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

I. SUMMARY 

The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of boys 
who ere participating in the interschool athletic program of the junior 
high schools of Topeka, Kansas. 

Coaches of the eleven Junior high schools of Topeka were asked to 
furnish information revealing the number of boys participating in the 
various sports which the Junior highs compete in. 

Related literature was studied to determine the opinion of 
authorities on such an athletic program for boys of this age. 

The final phase of the study presents a broad view of the 
athletic program for boys in Topeka Junior high schools. 

The following statements summarize the information obtained in 
the study. 

1. Educational authorities do not agree on the merits of com- 
petitive athletics for the adolescent boy. 

2. Many educators believe that athletics present opportunities 
which cannot be experienced in any other phase of school activities. 

3. Athletics should be recognized as an educational force and 
their potentialities be developed for all youth. 

4. Participation in Interschool athletics is favorable In moat 
instances in Topeka junior high schools. 






51 



5. All lnterschool sports, except tumbling and tennis, attract 
a favorable percentage of the boys enrolled. 

6. Football Is the sport with the largest percentage of par- 
ticipants, followed by basketball, track, wrestling, tumbling, and 
tennis. 

7. Administration and supervision of the Topeka junior high 
school athletic program is designed to make the program a part of the 
total school activity. 

II. RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Further encouragement for more participation on the part of 
all boys In Topeka junior high schools in the lnterschool program. 

2. A study to ascertain how the tumbling and tennis program in 
Topeka junior high schools can be made to serve a large number of boys. 

3. Greater emphasis should be placed on large groups participa- 
tion in ninth grade lnterschool athletics, particularly football and 
basketball. 






52 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

A. BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS 



Educational Policies Commission. School Activities : Problems and 
Policies. Washington, D. C: National Educational Association, 
1954. 116 pp. 

Forsythe, Charles E, , and Ray 0. Duncan. Administration of Physical 
Education. Hew York: Prentice Ilall Inc., 1951. 319 pp. 

Gardner, John. "A Study of the Athletic Program for Boys in the Junior 
High Schools of Topeka, Kansas" (Unpublished Master's Thesis, 
Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, 1956), 70 pp. 

Gruhn, William T. , and Ilarl R. Douglas. The. Modern Junior High School . 
New York: Ronald Press Co., 1947. 492 pp. 

Nixon, aigene W., and Frederick W. Cozens, tgi Introduction to Physical 
Education . Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1947. 340 pp. 



B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES 



Mitchell, Elmer D. "The Case Against Interschool Athletics in the 

Junior High School," The Bulletin . School of Education . Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, Vol. 23, No. 2, November, 1951, pp. 12, 77-79. 



C. UNCLASSIFIED MATERIALS 



Groves, Quentin D. Bulletin to Ail Coaches and Intramural Supervisors, 
September, 1962. 



A STUDY OF PARTICIPATION IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETICS 
IN THE TOPEKA, KANSAS PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 



by 

WILLIAM L. WHITE 
B. S., Kansas State University, 1962 



AN ABSTRACT OF A MASTER" S REPORT 



submitted in partial fulfillment of the 



requirements for the degree 



MASTER OF SCIENCE 



Department of Physical Education 



KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY 
Manhattan, Kansas 



1966 



The purpose of this study was to shov that a junior high school 
athletic program properly organized and administered, will result in a 
greater percentage of boys' participation; and be of greater benefit to 
the participants than many people realize. 

The following procedure was used in making the study: 

1. The literature at both Kansas State University and Washburn 
University was gleaned to find out what had been published on the subject 
of competitive athletics at the junior high school level. 

2. Coaches of the eleven junior high schools of Topeka, Kansas 
were asked to furnish information revealing the number of boys partici- 
pating in the various sports which the junior highs compete in. 

3. The Supervisor of Health, Physical Lducation and Recreation 
for the public schools of Topeka, Kansas was interviewed and kindly 
turned over all the Information he had on the subject to the writer. 

The enrollment of the total number of boys in each school at the 
end of the school year was used. The coaches of each sport from each 
school then furnished the total number of boys participating in each 
sport. It was then easy to determine the percentage of boys who are 
participating in the interschool athletic program in the junior high 
schools of Topeka, Kansas. 

A summary of the percentages for the various sports Included In 
the study were: 

1. Football 44.83% of the total number of boys enrolled in the 
schools. 

2. Basketball 41.65%. 



2 

3. Tumbling 14.932. 

4. Wrestling 40.42%. 

5. Track 39.2U. 

6. Tennis 10.38Z. 

The following conclusions seem justified as a result of the study: 

1. Participating in interachool athletics la favorable In most 
Instances in Topeka junior high schools. 

2. All interschool sports, except tumbling and tennis, attract 
a favorable percentage of the boys enrolled. 

3. Football is the sport with the largest percentage of partici- 
pation, followed by basketball, track, wrestling, tumbling, and tennis.